Alkaline soils are best reclaimed by

    1. Addition of gypsum
    2. Addition of gypsum and leaching
    3. Providing good drainage
    4. Leaching
    Correct option is B. Addition of gypsum and leaching

    Alkaline soils, also known as sodic or saline-sodic soils, have a pH greater than 7. These soils are characterized by high concentrations of sodium ions, which can cause soil dispersion, poor soil structure, reduced water infiltration, and decreased fertility.

    Reclaiming alkaline soils involves improving their physical, chemical, and biological properties to make them more suitable for plant growth.

    Reclamation of Alkaline Soils

    The best method for reclaiming alkaline soils typically involves a combination of the addition of gypsum and leaching. This approach addresses both the sodium-induced dispersion and the excess salts present in the soil.

    Addition of Gypsum

    Gypsum, or calcium sulfate (CaSO4·2H2O), is a common amendment used to improve the structure and fertility of sodic soils. Gypsum works by supplying calcium ions (Ca2+) that displace sodium ions (Na+) from soil exchange sites. The addition of gypsum helps to:

    1. Improve soil structure: When calcium ions replace sodium ions on the soil exchange sites, the soil particles tend to aggregate, improving soil structure and enhancing water infiltration and aeration.
    2. Increase nutrient availability: Calcium ions can help to neutralize the negative effects of high sodium levels on nutrient availability, promoting improved plant growth and development.


    Leaching is the process of applying water to the soil to remove excess salts and sodium ions. This is a crucial step in the reclamation process, as it helps to flush the displaced sodium ions and any remaining salts from the root zone, preventing them from being reabsorbed into the soil. Leaching should be carried out in conjunction with the addition of gypsum to achieve the best results.

    Providing Good Drainage

    While providing good drainage is essential for the overall success of the reclamation process, it is not sufficient on its own to reclaim alkaline soils. Drainage is important for several reasons:

    1. Facilitates leaching: Adequate drainage is necessary to ensure that the leaching process can effectively remove excess salts and sodium ions from the soil.
    2. Prevents waterlogging: Waterlogged conditions can exacerbate the problems associated with sodic soils, such as poor aeration and decreased nutrient availability. Proper drainage can help to maintain the appropriate soil moisture levels for plant growth.
    3. Minimizes salt accumulation: Good drainage can help to prevent the build-up of salts in the soil, which can occur due to evaporation or capillary rise from a shallow water table.

    The Reclamation Process

    Reclaiming alkaline soils involves a series of steps to ensure that the soil is effectively amended and that the excess salts and sodium ions are removed. The general process includes:

    1. Soil testing: Soil samples should be collected and analyzed to determine the soil pH, salinity, and sodicity levels. This information is crucial for developing an appropriate reclamation plan.
    2. Gypsum application: Based on the soil test results, the appropriate amount of gypsum should be applied to the soil. Gypsum can be incorporated into the soil through tillage or surface application.
    3. Leaching: After gypsum application, water should be applied to the soil to facilitate the leaching process. The amount of water required will depend on the soil type, initial sodicity level, and the desired level of reclamation.
    4. Drainage: Ensuring proper drainage is essential for the success of the leaching process and the overall reclamation of the alkaline soil.
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