A significant improvement in performance can be gained by implementing OB-Mod in managing and controlling human resources. The various stages are described below:
Identification of Critical Behaviours
The determination of performance-related behavioural activities is the first stage in OB Mod.
This stage is considered the most vital stage when the change agent identifies an ‘inner’ state or attitude that cannot be measured or observed. Even the results that surfaced due to this state will not be determined accurately.
However, the behaviours which are clearly visible can easily be discussed and altered. The association of behaviour with performance is the second significant aspect of this stage.
Therefore, the performance measures should be connected to the regularities of the targeted behaviour.
Identifying favourable and unfavourable behaviours context of the organization is the manager’s responsibility.
Due consideration must be given to the behaviours which have a noteworthy impact on the performance of the employees as they are recurring in nature. Better outcomes can be obtained later if these behaviours are altered.
Attendance or absenteeism, constructive criticism or complaints, performing and not performing any task, and promptness or tardiness are some of the behaviours that impact employees’ performance.
Due to their close proximity to job behaviours, both the employee and his superior must be included in the discussion to identify the crucial behaviours.
Measurement of Behaviours
Measurement of behaviour is the next stage in OB Mod. The counting of occurrences of behaviour can be adopted as a tool for this purpose.
A statistical representation of the behaviour is then obtained by representing these occurrences on a graph. A variety of purposes are served by these graphs and measurements.
First of all, the intensity of behavioural problems can be analyzed by the graphs, especially when both behaviour and performance measures are plotted together in combination with each other.
Secondly, the environmental outcomes can also be recognized by these graphs. The occurrence of reinforcement in the environment is identified when there is an increase in the frequency of behaviours.
In the same manner, any decrease in the frequency indicates the withdrawal of reinforcement or the presence of punishers.
Lastly, a guideline to analyze the effectiveness of punishers or reinforces is provided by these graphs, which can be implemented for behaviour modification.
Some essential performance information is needed to be furnished by the manager at this stage. Over a period of time, the manager records the occurrences of crucial behaviour.
The manager’s success in behaviour modification of employees can be determined through these records. Using these records, various situations pertaining to all crucial behaviours can also be understood.
Functional Analysis of Behaviours
It is the third stage of O.B. Mod. This stage includes the division of environment and behaviour into three different functional elements, which are known as Antecedent (A) – Behaviour (B) — and Consequence (C) or A-B-C.
A variety of methods can be employed to identify antecedents and consequences. The change agent can enlist various possible outcomes and indications by observing the situations.
To recognize the various elements in the environment which support or control an individual’s behaviour, interviewing the performers or other people can also be used as an effective tool.
At last,” celebrations” in the behaviour can be associated with the various events in the environment which have the capability of maintaining/modifying or prompting the behaviour under analysis.
This can be done by evaluating the graphs of behavioural frequencies. A comprehensive list of various factors which control or support the behaviours can be obtained as the end result of this stage.
The evaluation of patterns of sustained behaviour that are to be modified or changed is very important. It necessitates the understanding and examination of individual variances in behaviour.
The succeeding stage of intervention is simplified considerably if a list of positive reinforces can be generated at this stage.
The recognition of contingent consequences must be made necessarily in this third stage as only these have an impact on subsequent behaviour.
Development of Intervention Strategy
Developing strategies for intervention is the fourth stage of the O.B. Mod.
It simply refers to the introduction or re-organization of the outcomes and indications in the surroundings to direct the behaviour in the desired direction.
The action stage for developing a suitable intervention strategy will be determined by the recognition of critical behaviours, which need to be modified, and the various elements encouraging these behaviours.
The following points are involved in the successful implementation of OB Mod:
- Formulation of a strategy for behaviour modification,
- Execution of the strategy, and
- Assessing the frequency of the consequential behaviour.
The frequency of problem behaviour repetition is maintained and recorded. A reinforcement schedule will be chosen by the manager for maintaining favourable behaviour if the modification in behaviour takes place in the preferred direction.
Evaluation is the last step in OB Mod and is based on experiments. It ensures that the desired performance improvement is attained due to the application of interventions on behaviour.
This evaluation stage uses control group experimental designs, reversal, and multiple baselines. The intervention strategy, which is developed in the fourth stage, will be maintained if performance and behaviour are both modified in the preferred direction.
However, the stages in the model need to be implemented again if either the performance or behaviour does not show any kind of favourable modification.
The main objective of evaluating O.B. Mod strategies is to understand their usefulness and degree of success. Relevant information about the replacement of undesired behaviours with the desired behaviours can be gained with the help of this activity.
Information regarding whether the employees have imbibed changes in their behaviours permanently or temporarily can also be discovered by the evaluation of OB Mod strategies.
The manager must accomplish the basic objective of OB Mod, i.e., behavioural improvement assessment.