The term alternate depth in open channel flow is used to designate the depths

    1. At the beginning and end of a hydraulic jump
    2. Having the same kinetic energy for a given discharge
    3. Having the same specific energy for a given discharge
    4. At the beginning and end of a gradually varied flow profile
    Correct option is C. Having the same specific energy for a given discharge

    In open channel flow, the term alternate depth is used to designate the depths having the same specific energy for a given discharge. This concept plays a crucial role in understanding and analyzing various flow phenomena in open channels, such as hydraulic jumps, flow transitions, and energy dissipation.

    Specific Energy in Open Channel Flow

    Specific energy (E) in open channel flow refers to the total energy per unit weight of fluid at a given cross-section, which is the sum of the depth of flow (h) and the kinetic energy per unit weight of fluid (v^2/2g), where v is the flow velocity and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Mathematically, specific energy is represented as:

    E = h + (v^2 / 2g)

    In open channel flow, specific energy is an essential parameter for understanding flow characteristics, such as critical flow conditions, subcritical and supercritical flow regimes, and flow transitions.

    Alternate Depths

    For a given discharge (Q) and channel geometry, there are typically two depths that have the same specific energy. These depths are known as alternate depths. One of these depths corresponds to a subcritical flow (slow-moving, tranquil flow), while the other depth corresponds to a supercritical flow (fast-moving, rapid flow). The relationship between alternate depths can be determined using the specific energy equation and the flow characteristics.

    Identifying Alternate Depths

    To identify alternate depths, one must first calculate the specific energy (E) for a given discharge (Q) and channel geometry. This can be done using the specific energy equation mentioned above. Once the specific energy is calculated, the alternate depths can be found by solving the specific energy equation for the flow depth (h) at different flow velocities (v). This will result in two distinct depths that share the same specific energy.

    Importance of Alternate Depths

    Understanding alternate depths is vital for several reasons:

    1. Hydraulic Jumps: Alternate depths are essential for analyzing and designing hydraulic jumps, which are flow phenomena that occur when supercritical flow transitions to subcritical flow, resulting in a sudden increase in flow depth and energy dissipation. Hydraulic jumps are often used in engineering applications, such as energy dissipators in spillways and flow control structures.
    2. Flow Transitions: Alternate depths help in understanding flow transitions between subcritical and supercritical flow regimes. These transitions can be critical in designing efficient and safe hydraulic structures, such as bridges, culverts, and weirs.
    3. Energy Dissipation: The concept of alternate depths is useful in designing energy dissipating structures and determining the most efficient flow conditions for energy dissipation.

    Examples and Applications

    Alternate depths are commonly encountered in various engineering applications related to open channel flow. Some examples include:

    • Spillways: In dam spillways, alternate depths are used to design energy dissipators and hydraulic jumps that safely dissipate the energy of the released water, preventing erosion and damage to downstream areas.
    • Weirs: In weirs, alternate depths are used to analyze flow conditions and design appropriate flow control structures to maintain desired flow regimes and minimize the risk of flooding or erosion.
    • Culverts: In culvert design, alternate depths are used to analyze flow transitions and ensure that the culvert can safely pass the desired flow without causing erosion, scouring, or other structural problems.
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